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小学英语基础知识汇总,寒假给孩子的学习素材

日期:2020-12-07 13:02 点击:

 

这篇文章从英语基础知识、语法、句法、三个方面归纳总结了小学英语必备知识。老师可以分享给更多孩子们,寒期对照查这查缺补漏,方便学习哦~

 

第一部分:基础知识
 
1.字母:26个字母的大小写
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
2.语音:元音的发音
五个元音字母:AEIOU
12个单元音:
前元音:[i:] [ɪ] /e/ [æ]
中元音:[ɜ:] [ə]
后元音:[ɑ:] [ɒ] [ɔ:] [u :] [ʊ] [ʌ]
双元音(8个)
Ⅰ.合口双元音(5个)[ai] [ei] [au] [əu] [ɔi]
Ⅱ.集中双元音(3个) [iə][εə][uə]
3.词汇:词汇量,近反义词
4.句子:大小写,标点符号
 
第二部分:语法知识
 
 

名词

 
名词单复数,名词的格式
(一)名词单复数
1.一般情况,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds
2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches
3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries
4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives
5.不规则名词复数:man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice
child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
不可数名词的复数就是原型:paper, juice, water, milk, rice, tea
(二)名词的格
(1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格:
a) 单数后加 ’s 如: Lucy’s ruler my father’s shirt
b) 以s 结尾的复数名词后加 ’如: his friends’ bags
c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加 ’s children’s shoes
l并列名词中,如果把 ’s加在最后一个名词后,表示共有, 如:
Tom and Mike’s car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车
l要表示所有物不是共有的,应分别在并列名词后加’s
Tom’s and Mike’s cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车
(2)表示无生命东西的名词通常用“ of +名词”来表示所有关系:如:a picture of the classroom a map of China
 
 

冠词

 
不定冠词,定冠词种类:
(1)不定冠词:a / an a unit / an uncle
元音开头的可数名词前用an :
an egg / an apple / an orange / an eraser / an answer / an ID card / an alarm clock / an actor / an actress / an e-mail / an address / an event / an example / an opera / an houran old man / an interesting book / an exciting sport / an action movie / an art lesson /
(2)定冠词:the the egg the plane
2. 用法:
定冠词的用法:
(1)特指某(些)人或某(些)物:The ruler is on the desk.
(2)复述上文提到的人或物:He has a sweater. The sweater is new.
(3)谈话双方都知道的人或物:The boys aren’t at school.
(4)在序数词前:John’s birthday is February the second.
(5)用于固定词组中:in the morning / afternoon / evening
不用冠词的情况:
(1)专有名词前:China is a big country.
(2)名词前有定语:this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等:
This is my baseball.
(3)复数名词表示一类人和事:Monkeys can’t swim. They are teachers.
(4)在节日,日期,月份,季节前:Today is Christmas Day. It’s Sunday.
(5)一日三餐前:We have breakfast at 6:30.
(6)球类 棋类运动前:They often play football after class. He plays chess at home.
* 但乐器前要用定冠词:I play the guitar very well.
(7)学科名称前:My favorite subject is music.
(8)在称呼或头衔的名词前:This is Mr Li.
(9)固定词组中:at noon at night by bus
 
 

代词、形容词、副词

 
代词:人称代词,物主代词
 
 
人称代词物主代词
 
主格宾格
第一
人称单数I(我)memy(我的)
复数we(我们)usour(我们的)
第二
人称单数you(你)youyour(你的)
复数you(你们)youyour(你们的)
第三
人称单数he(他)himhis(他的)
she(她)herher(她的)
it(它)itits(它的)
复数they(他们/她们/它们)themtheir(他们的/她们的/它们的)
 
 
形容词,副词:比较级,最高级
(一)、形容词的比较级
1、形容词比较级在句子中的运用:两个事物或人的比较用比较级,比较级后面一般带有单词than。比较级前面可以用more, a little来修饰表示程度。than后的人称代词用主格(口语中可用宾格)。
2.形容词加er的规则:
⑴ 一般在词尾加er ;
⑵ 以字母e 结尾,加r ;
⑶ 以一个元音字母和一个辅音字母结尾,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加er ;
⑷ 以“辅音字母+y”结尾,先把y变i,再加er 。
3.不规则形容词比较级:
good-better, beautiful-more beautiful
(二)副词的比较级
1.形容词与副词的区别(有be用形,有形用be;有动用副,有副用动)
⑴在句子中形容词一般处于名词之前或be动词之后
⑵副词在句子中最常见的是处于实义动词之后
2.副词比较级的变化规则基本与形容词比较级相同(不规则变化:well-better, far-farther)
 
 

四、数词:基数词、序数词

(1)1-20
one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen, sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty
(2)21-99 先说“几十”,再说“几”,中间加连字符。
23→twenty-three,34→thirty-four,45→forty—five,56→fifty-six,67→sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one
(3)101—999先说“几百”,再加and,再加末两位数或末位数;
586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three
(4)l,000以上,先从右往左数,每三位数加一个“,”,第一个“,”前为thousand.第二个“,”前为million,第三个“,”前为billion
1,001→one thousand and one
18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three
6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine
750,000,000,000→seven hundred and fifty billion
序数词
(1)一般在基数词后加th
eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth
(2)不规则变化
one→first,two→second,three→third,five→fifth,eight→eighth,nine→ninth,twelve—twelfth
(3)以y结尾的十位整数,变y为ie再加th
twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth
(4)从二十一后的“几十几”直至“几百几十几”或“几千几百几十几”只将个位的基数词变为序数词。
twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth
 
 
 
基数词转为序数词的口诀:
 
基变序,有规律,词尾加上-th.
一,二,三,特殊记,词尾字母t,d,d.
八去t,九去e, ve要用f替。
ty将y变成i,th前面有个e.
若是碰到几十几,前用基来后用序。
 
 
 
 

介词

 
常用介词:in, on, at, behind等
1.at表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)。
at 1:00(dawn,midnight,noon)在一点钟(黎明、午夜、中午)
2.on
1)表示具体日期。
注:(1)关于"在周末"的几种表示法:
at(on)the weekend 在周末---特指
at(on)weekends 在周末---泛指
over the weekend 在整个周末
during the weekend 在周末期间
(2)在圣诞节,应说at Christmas?而不说on Christmas?
2)在(刚……)的时候。
On reaching the city he called up his parents.
一到城里他就给父母打了一个电话。
3.in
1)表示"时段"、"时期",在多数情况下可以和during互换,前者强调对比,后者强调持续。in(during)1988(December,the 20th century)在一九八八年(十二月、二十世纪)
 
 
 

动词:动词的四种时态

 
(1)一般现在时:
一般现在时的构成
1. be动词:主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如:I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。
2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。 如:We study English. 我们学习英语。
当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。
动词+s的变化规则
1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks
2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes
3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies
(2)一般过去时:
动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:
A、规则动词
① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited
② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used
③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)
④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped
B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,
see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt
(3)一般将来时:
基本结构:
①be going to + do;
②will+ do. be going to = will
I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.
(4)现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词
动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:
① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如