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三校生五月考英语知识点梳理 动词的时态和语态

日期:2018-04-09 10:06 点击:

三校生五月考英语知识点梳理 冠词的用法及经典例题三校生五月考已经进入了最后的冲刺阶段,思源教育小编为各位童鞋整理了五月考英语必考的动词的时态和语态知识点及一些经典例题,希望可以对大家的复习有所帮助。

三校生五月考英语知识点梳理 动词的时态和语态

知识点梳理

1. 常用常考的动词时态和用法:(以do为例)

名称

构成

用法

一般现在时

do/does,( 连系动词is/am/are )

1.一般现在时表示经常发生、习惯性动作、客观真理、科学事实、格言,目前的特征、状态、能力等。

2.主句是一般将来时,时间、条件状语从句中用一般现在时表示将来。

I’ll go there after I finish my work.

If it rains tomorrow,I won’t go there.

3.在以here,there开头的句子里,go,come等少数动词的一般在时表示正在发生的动作。

There goes the bell.铃响了。

There comes the bus.汽车来了。

Here she comes.她来了。

一般过去时

did,( 连系动词was/were)

表达特定的过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状况,或过去某一时间内经常发生或反复发生的动作或行为。

现在进行时

is/am/are doing

1.表示正在进行的动作。

2.表示按计划安排即将发生的动作。

She is leaving for Beijing.她要去北京。

He is working as a  teacher tomorrow.

从明天起他要做老师。

My father is coming  to see me this Saturday.

这个星期六我爸爸要来看我。

3.代替一般现在时,描绘更加生动。

The Changjiang River  is flowing into the east.

长江江水滚滚向东流。

The sun is rising in  the east.太阳从东方冉冉升起。

过去进行时

was/were doing

1.表示过去某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作(这一过去时间须用时间状语表示)

He was preparing his lecture all day yesterday.

2.表示动作在另一过去动作发生时进行

They were still working when I left.

3.用在两个过去进行时动作同时发生

I was writing while he was watching TV.

4.表示过去将来动作

He said she was  arriving the next day.

现在完成时

has/have done

1.表示过去发生的动作对现在产生的影响或结果,说话时已

完成的动作。

I have finished the report./  She has cleand the room.

2.表示从过去开始,待续到现在的动作或状态,往往

“for...”, “since...”表述的一段时间状语连用。

He has learned English for six  years.

They have worked here since  they left college.

3.表示曾经到过某地(人已回来)“have/has been to”,表示到某地去了(还未回来)“have/has gone to”

—Where is Li Hua?

He has gone to the  reading-room.

—She knows a lot  about Shanghai.

She has been there.

4.短暂动词(即瞬间动词),

join,lose,buy,borrow,leave,go,come,arrive,die,marry,  finish,complete,begin,start,break out等,在完成时态

中,其肯定式不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。不能说:He has joined the army for  three years.

要翻译他已参军已经三年了。可采用

“ago

He joined the army  three years ago.

延续法

He has been in the army  for three years.

“since

It is/has been three  years since he joined the army.

过去完成时

had done

1.表示在过去某一时间以前已经完成的动作。

He had shut the door before the dog came up.

Everything had been all right up till this morning.

2.表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到

另一个过去时刻才完成,甚至还要继续下去。

At the age of ten,he  had learned 500 English words.

He had been ill for  a week when we learned about it.

3.常用hope,expect,think,intend,want,suppose等动词的

过去完成时来表示未实现的希望、打算或意图。

We had expected that  you would be able to win the match.

将来完成时

will/shall have done

用来表示在将来某个时刻(前)将完成的动作。常和by

语,when,before引起的时间状语连用。

We will have finished senior Book 2 by the end of this term.

现在完成进行时

has/have been doing

用来表示从过去某一时刻开始一直持续到现在(还要继续下

去)的动作。He has been doing the maths problems since 8:00.

过去完成进行时

had been doing

表示动作或状态从过去某个时刻开始一直延续到另一个过去时刻才完成,还将继续下去。

一般将来时

will/shall do

is/am/are going to do

is/am/areaboutto do

一般将来时表示将来要发生的动作和存在的状况

(详见下面2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较)

过去将来时

would/should do

was/were going to do

was/wereaboutto do

1.相对于过去某一时刻而言即将发生的动作或存在的状态

He told me he would go to  Beijing.他告诉我他将去北京。

I was told that he was going to  return home.

有人告诉我他准备回家。

2. would do(表示过去的习惯)总是,总会,常常
 He would sit silent for hours.

他常常接连好几个小时默默地坐着。

2.一般将来时的特殊表达方式的比较

 

将来时

   

   

1

be + doing进行时表将来

go,  come, start, move, leave, arrive等词可用进行时表示按计划即将发生的动作

He is  moving to the south.

Are  they leaving for Europe?

2

be about to + 动词原形

表示安排或计划中的马上就要发生的动作,后面一般不跟时间状语

I was  about to leave when the bell rang.

The  meeting is about to close.

3

be to + 动词原形

表示按计划进行或征求对方意见

We’re to  meet at the school gate at noon.

4

一般现在时表将来

时刻表上或日程安排上早就定好的事情,可用一般现在时表示将来

The  meeting starts at five o’clock.

The  plane leaves at ten this evening.

3.容易混淆的时态比较

 

   

   

   

一般过去时与现在完成时的比较

现在完成时强调过去动作对现在产生的影响或造成的结果

We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time. What do you suppose  _______ to her?

A. was happening    B.  happens     C. has happened    D. happened

说明:说话者强调Jane 目前的状况.

Mr. Lee, who ________ as a carpenter for over 10  years, is now a very famous statesman in this country.

A. has worked B. had worked              C.  worked             D. works

(只说明他过去当过木匠不涉及到现在)

一般过去时只表达过去的动作或状态

Hello, I ____ you were in London. How long _________ here?

A. don’t know; were you            B. hadn’t known; are you

C. haven’t known; are              D. didn’t know; have you  been

说明:didn’t know 强调见面前不知道

I read  the novel last month. (只说明上个月看了,不涉及现在是否记住)

现在完成时与现在完成进行时的比较

着重表示动作的结果时,用现在完成时

I have  read that book.我读过那本书了。(知道那本书的内容)

着重表示动作一直在进行,即动作的延续性时,则用现在完成进行时

—Hi, Tracy, you look  tired.   

—I am tired. I _______ the  living room all day.

A. painted              B. had painted   

C. have been painting     D. have painted

说明:强调动作从过去到现在的延续

现在进行时与过去进行时的比较

现在进行时表示现在某个时候或某段时间正在进行的动作

I don’t really work  here. I ____ until the new secretary _______.

A. just help out;  comes             B.  have just helped out; will come

C. am just helping  out; comes       D. will just help out; has come

说明:指目前一段时间正在发生的动作, until 引导的是时间状语从句,动词需用一般现在时。

过去进行时表示某个时候或某段时间正在进行的动作

— Hey, look where  you are going!  

— Oh, I’m terribly  sorry. _______.

 A. I’m not noticing.   B.  I wasn’t noticing

C. I haven’t noticed.   D. I  don’t notice.

说明:对话的后者显然是在解释刚才不小心冒犯对方时正在做的事情.

一般过去时与过去进行时的比较

一般过去时只表达过去的动作或状态

Tom________ into the  house when no one ___________.

A. slipped; was  noticing  B. had slipped;  noticed 

C. slipped; had  noticed   D. was slipping; noticed

说明:slipnotice 为同时发生的动作,因此BC为错误选项,slipped指过去有结果的动作(他溜进去了),when no one was  noticing 指他溜进去的一刹那发生的情况(没有人注意)。

过去进行时表示某个时候或某段时间正在进行的动作

.He ______ a book  about China last year, but I don’t know if he ______ it.

A.wrote; has  finished            B. was writing;  has finished

C. was writing; had  finished       D. wrote; will finish

说明:正确选项为B. I don’t know if he  has finished it.推断,他去年一直在写。

           

II. 动词的被动语态

 

常用被动语态

   

 

常用被动语态

   

1

一般现在时

am/is/are done

6

过去进行时

was/were being done

2

一般过去时

was/were done

7

现在完成时

have/has been done

3

一般将来时

shall/will be done

8

过去完成时

had been done

4

过去将来时

should/would be done

9

将来完成时

will/would have been done

5

现在进行时

am/is/are being done

10

含有情态动词的

can/must/may be done

 

 

 

被动语态的否定式是在第一个助动词或情态动词后加not,短语动词的被动态不可漏掉其中介副词。固定结构be going to,

used to,have to, had better变为被动态时,只需将其后的动词变为被动态。

Trees should not be planted in  summer.                The boy was made  fun of by his classmates.

Newspapers used to be sent here  by the little girl.

汉语有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可用被动结构表示:

It is believed that…                      It is generally  considered that…          It is said that…   

It is well known that…                   It must be pointed out  that…             It is supposed that… 

It is reported that…                      It must be admitted that…               It is hoped that…

被动语态的句型

1.常见句式是:主语(受动者)+be+过去分词+(by+施动者):He was scolded by  the English teacher.

2.主语+get+过去分词+其它成分:The boy got drowned last summer./ She got fired because  of her faults.

使用这种结构不能带有“by+施动者

3.带有双宾语(直接宾语和间接宾语)的主动句变为动句,其主语可以是直接宾语,也可以是间接宾语。

She lent me a bike.®被动:①I was lent a bike(by  her). A bike was lent to me(by her).

4.情态动词+be+过去分词:This problem must be worked out in half an hour.

5.双重被动式:主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式+其它成分

These magazines are  not allowed to be taken out of the reading-room.

The murderer was ordered to be  shot.

下面主动形式常表示被动意义

1.不及物动词与状语连用,用以表示主语的品质和状态。常见动词是:cut,sell,read,write,fill,cook,lock,wash等。

This knife cuts  well.这把刀好切。             These books sell well.这些书好卖。

The pen writes  smoothly.这支笔写起来流畅。   Meat won’t keep long in  such hot weather.肉在这样热的天气里放不长久。

The cloth washes  well.这种布好洗。

2.一些连系动词的主动式+形容词。常见动look,smell,taste,sound,feel,prove,turn  out等。

The apples taste  good.                       The flower  smells wonderful.

The news  proved/turned out true.               Cotton  feels soft.

不可变为被动语态的几种情况

1.I teach myself French.不可变为Myself is taught French.因为反身代词不可作主语。

2.We help each other/one  another.不可变为Each other/One another is helped by us.因为相互代词不可作主语。

3.He lost heart.不可变为Heart was lost by  him.

因为象lose heart,make a face,keep silence,lose in thought这类动宾结构的固定短语只能用于主动式,不能用被动式。

4.She took part in  the sports meet.不能变为The sports meet was taken part in by her.

因为象take part in,belong to ,own,have,hate,fail,contain等表状态动词没有被动语态。

含有短语动词在被动语态中介词不能丢

Much attention must be paid to your handwriting.

特别注意以下句子的结构:Every minute must be made full use of to study Englsih.

下面词或短语没有被动态:

leave, enter, reach, become,  benefit, cost, equal, contain, last, lack, fit, fail, have, appear, happen, occur,  belong to, take place, break out, come about, agree with, keep up with,  consist of, have on, lose heart等等

练习

1 Here _____the bus!

A is coming B comes C has come D has been coming

2 It's the third time I ______him this month.

A had seen B see C saw D have seen

3 If you go to the western suburbs of the city , you ___a lot of new buildings .

A will see B have seen C see D are going to see

4-- I have bought an English -Chinese dictionary. -- When and where ___you__ _it?

A do,buy B did,buy C have, bought D had,bought

5 She showed him the photo she __the day before.

A has taken B took C was taking D had taken

6 While Tom ___, his sister is writing.

A reads B has read C has been reading D is reading

7 By the time he was ten,Edison_____experiments in chemistry.

A had already done B already had done

C was already doing D already did

8 I don’t know whether it _____or not tomorrow.

A will snow B snows C has snowed D is snowing

9 He was sixty-eight. In two years he _____seventy.

A was going to be B would be C had been D will be

10 Tom ___for more than a week.

A has left B has gone away C went away D has been away

11 He said that honesty _____the key to success.

A was B will be C is D is being

12 She _____inLondontill nest Monday.

A will have stayed B has stayed C is staying D has been staying

13 We _____each other since I leftShanghai.

A haven't seen B hadn't seen C didn't see D wouldn't see

14 I'll return the book to the library as soon as I_ __it .

A will finish B am going to finish C finished D have finished

15 She has bought some cloth, she ____herself a dress.

A makes B is going to make C would make D has made

16 Don't go and bother him. He _____in the room.

A writes B has written C is writing D has been writing

17 ___you ___?

A Do ;marry B Have ;married C Have;been married D Are;married

18 Tom: This is a terribly heavy box. John: I ____you to carry it.

A will help B am going to help C had better to help D had rather help

19 She told me that her father _____to the post office when I arrived

A just went B has just gone C had just gone D had just been going

20 Don't get of f until the bus _____.

A stopped B will stop C will have stopped D stops

21 Peter said that he _____home the next day.

A was going to B will go C would go D had gone

22 He ____with us since he returned last month.

A lives B lived C had lived D has lived

23 They ___to help but could not get here in time.

A had wanted B have wanted C was wanting D want

24 They will go to work in the countryside when they ____school next year .

A will leave B will have leave C are leaving D leave

25 I didn't know when they ___again.

A came B were coming C had come D had been coming

26 The fence ____near the window.

A stand B is standing C have stood D stands

27 They _____here for more than a month.

A have arrived B have reached C have come D have been

28 We ___a meeting from 2 to 4 yesterday afternoon.

A had had B would have C were having D had

29 She told us she had met you inLondonlast year. _____ you _____her since ?

A Had; met B Did; see C Would; meet D Have; seen

30 If it ____tomorrow, we won't go to the school farm.

A is to rain B will be raining C will rain D rains

31-___you ___to the 6:30 broadcast?

A Have; listened B Did; listen C Had; listened D would; isten

32 I _____Tom has made a mistake.

A am thinking B shall think C think D have been thinking

33 I ___writing the article now.

A finish B is finishing C finished D have finished

34 When ____you___ to study English?

A have; begun B did; begin C had; begun D do; begin

35 He was taken into hospital last week. In fact he _____ill for three months.

A has been B has got C had fallen D had been

36 I'll look after your children after you _____.

A will go B will have gone C are gone D went

37 He __of how he could do more for the people .

A will always think B is always thinking C has always thought D does always think

38 The foreign friends _____here just now.

A left B have left C have been away from D had left

39 The teacher said that we ______ten lessons by the end of this term.

A should study B have studied C were going to study D should have studied

40 We __there when it_ ___to rain.

A were getting ;would begin B were about to get ;began

C had got ;had begun D would get;began

动词时态答案答案

1 - 5 BDABD 6 -10 DAABD 11-15 CCADB 16-20 CDACD

21-25 CDADB 26-30 DDCDD 31-35 BCDBD 36-40 CBADB

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